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Antidiabetic potentials of ethanolic extract of Aristolochia ringens (Vahl.) roots

Sulyman, A.O., Akolade, J.O., Sabiu, S.A., Aladodo, R.A., Muritala, H.F.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016 v.182 pp. 122-128
Aristolochia, alkaloids, alpha-amylase, animal disease models, biomarkers, blood glucose, body weight, chemical composition, diabetes, ethanol, flavonoids, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose tolerance tests, glycemic effect, glycogen, hyperglycemia, liver, oral administration, phenols, quantitative analysis, rats, roots, saponins, streptozotocin, tannins, traditional medicine, Nigeria
Oral administration of alcoholic decoctions of Aristolochia ringens is used extensively by Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMP) of Yoruba heritage in South west, Nigeria for the management of diabetes and its associated complications.To assess the potentials of root ethanolic extract of Aristolochia ringens V. (REAR) in the management of diabetes using chemical induced experimental animal model.Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out to elucidate chemical constituents of the REAR extract using phytochemical analyses and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were orally administered with 75, 150 and 300mg/kg body weight of the REAR, once a day and the blood glucose (GLU) levels were monitored for 14 days. Mechanisms of GLU lowering effect were investigated by performing oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and modulation of diabetes associated biomarkers including hepatic glycogen (GLY), GLU, alpha amylase (αAMY) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) by the extract.Extraction from A. ringens roots using ethanol/water (70/30) yielded 10.25% w/w REAR extract. Preliminary phytochemical profiling of REAR extract revealed the presence of flavonoids (23.03%), phenols (19.15%), alkaloids (16.13%), tannins (4.21%), saponins (1.44%) and GC–MS analyses showed that bulk of the extract was constituted by aristolone (92.3%). Oral administration of 300mg/kg b. wt. REAR extract caused significant reduction (>90%) in hyperglycemia to normal GLU level (≤ 120mg/dl) after 11 days of treatment. Lower doses of 75 and 150mg/kg b. wt. caused similar effect after 13 days. The extract also normalized postprandial GLU to baseline level within 90−120min. Also, GLY concentrations and GPDH activity were significantly increased, whereas GLU levels and αAMY activity were reduced in the liver of diabetic rats treated with REAR extract compared to values in non-treated diabetic group.These findings revealed that ethanolic extract from A. ringens root possess antihyperglycemic activity and the data established its usage in folkloric decoctions for management of diabetes.