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Opuntia dillenii cladode: Opuntiol and opuntioside attenuated cytokines and eicosanoids mediated inflammation

Siddiqui, Faheema, Naqvi, Sabira, Abidi, Lubna, Faizi, Shaheen, Lubna,, Avesi, Lubna, Mirza, Talat, Farooq, Ahsana Dar
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016 v.182 pp. 221-234
Opuntia stricta var. dillenii, anti-inflammatory activity, arachidonic acid, carrageenan, cladodes, diclofenac, dose response, dyes, ears, edema, enzyme inhibitors, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high performance liquid chromatography, histology, indomethacin, inflammation, inhibitory concentration 50, interleukin-1beta, metabolites, methanol, mice, neutrophils, peritonitis, phospholipase A2, prostaglandin synthase, prostaglandins, rats, reactive oxygen species, traditional medicine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Opuntia dillenii Haw (Nagphana) traditionally used against inflammation. The present study addressed the anti-inflammatory activity of O. dillenii derived methanol extract, fractions and pure compounds and their underlying mechanism of action.O. dillenii cladode methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) furnishing two main fractions viz (T-1 and -2) leading to isolation of opuntiol (aglycone) and opuntioside (O-glucoside), respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of extract, fractions, pure compounds and reference drugs were evaluated using: (1) arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema accompanied by histological studies of mice ear sections and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-induced mice paw edema. (2) Carrageenan and glycogen-induced peritonitis in rodents. In parallel levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined via HPLC and fluoroemetrically using 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) dye, respectively. Additionally, levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukins IL-1β and -6 were measured by ELISA assay.O. dillenii methanol extract, fractions and pure compounds reduced AA and TPA-induced ear punch weight in a dose dependent fashion. The corresponding IC50 values obtained also suppressed inflammatory features observed histologically. Furthermore, paw edema and peritonitis were also attenuated. Similar to indomethacin and diclofenac sodium, opuntioside reduced PGE2 levels of inflamed ear which was comparatively 1.3× better than opuntiol. However, opuntiol was more potent in reducing LTB4 levels in rat neutrophils with an IC50 value of 19±3.3μΜ, while opuntioside was ineffective. Opuntiol also effectively suppressed ROS (37%) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-1β and -6) by ~50% and comparable to dexamethasone.O. dillenii cladodes possess anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolites and cytokines. Opuntiol (aglycone) emerged as a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipooxygenase (LOX) pathways. It also suppressed ROS and cytokine levels. However, opuntioside manifested its selectivity towards COX (PGE2) pathway without affecting LTB4 levels. The present report describing the anti-inflammatory activity of opuntiol and opuntioside for the first time thereby, supporting and justifying the traditional use of O. dillenii against inflammation and may serve as lead compound in designing of new anti-inflammatory agents.