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A system dynamics urban water management model for Macau, China

Wei, Tong, Lou, Inchio, Yang, Zhifeng, Li, Yingxia
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2016 v.50 pp. 117-126
climate, climate change, landscapes, models, population growth, population size, temperature, urbanization, water conservation, water resources, China, Macau
Urban water resources have been facing significant pressure from population growth, urbanization, and climate change. A system dynamics urban water management model was proposed to simulate the dynamic interactions between urban water demands and society, economy, climate, and water conservation. The residents' water conservation willingness was incorporated in the model and water-saving effects were quantified. The simulation results for Macau showed that population size was the main driving force for urban water demand. The change of temperature and precipitation has obvious effects on the landscape water demand. The water demand output is sensitive to the change in population, per capita demand, and temperature. Increased precipitation will reduce urban water demand and increased economic growth will increase water demand. By implementing integrated water conservation measures and improved water conservation willingness, water demand could be reduced by 17.5%.