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Morphology, Radiocarbon Age, and Genesis of Vertisols of the Eisk Peninsula (the Kuban–Azov Lowland)

Khitrov, N. B., Zazovskaya, E. P., Rogovneva, L. V.
Eurasian soil science 2018 v.51 no.7 pp. 731-743
Vertisols, calcium carbonate, carbon, catenas, clay, clay soils, humus, humus horizons, leaching, radionuclides, soil solution, spatial distribution
Data on the morphology and radiocarbon ages of humus of dark vertic quasigley nonsaline clayey soils with alternating bowl-shaped (Pellic Vertisols (Humic, Stagnic)) and diapiric (Haplic Vertisols (Stagnic, Protocalcic)) structures are discussed, and the genetic concept for these soils is suggested. The studied soils develop on loesslike medium clay in the bottom of a large closed depression on the Eisk Peninsula in the lowest western part of the Kuban–Azov Lowland. The lateral and vertical distribution of humus in the studied gilgai catena displays a lateral transition of a relatively short humus profile of the accumulative type with a maximum near the surface and with a sharp increase in ¹⁴C dates of humus in the deeper layers within the diapiric structure to the extremely deep humus profile with a maximum at the depth of 40–80 cm, with similar mean residence time of carbon within this maximum, and with a three times slower increase in ¹⁴C dates of humus down the profile within the bowl-shaped structure. The development of the gilgai soil combination is specified by the joint action of the lateral–upward squeezing of the material of the lower horizons from the nodes with an increased horizontal stress toward the zones a decreased horizontal stress, local erosional loss of soil material from the microhighs and its accumulation in the adjacent microlows, leaching of carbonates from the humus horizons in the microlows, and the vertical and lateral ascending capillary migration of the soil solutions with precipitation of calcium carbonates in the soils of microhighs.