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Comparative root transcriptome of wild Arachis reveals NBS-LRR genes related to nematode resistance

Mota, Ana Paula Zotta, Vidigal, Bruna, Danchin, Etienne G. J., Togawa, Roberto Coiti, Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M., Bertioli, David John, Araujo, Ana Claudia Guerra, Brasileiro, Ana Cristina Miranda, Guimaraes, Patricia Messenberg
BMC plant biology 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 159
Arachis, Meloidogyne arenaria, chromosomes, gene expression regulation, genetic improvement, genetic variation, genotype, grain quality, hypersensitive response, immunity, pathogens, peanuts, plant disease resistance, plant diseases and disorders, quantitative trait loci, resistance genes, root-knot nematodes, secondary metabolites, transcriptome, transcriptomics, wild relatives
BACKGROUND: The Root-Knot Nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne arenaria, significantly reduces peanut grain quality and yield worldwide. Whilst the cultivated species has low levels of resistance to RKN and other pests and diseases, peanut wild relatives (Arachis spp.) show rich genetic diversity and harbor high levels of resistance to many pathogens and environmental constraints. Comparative transcriptome analysis can be applied to identify candidate resistance genes. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis during the early stages of RKN infection of two peanut wild relatives, the highly RKN resistant Arachis stenosperma and the moderately susceptible A. duranensis, revealed genes related to plant immunity with contrasting expression profiles. These included genes involved in hormone signaling and secondary metabolites production and also members of the NBS-LRR class of plant disease resistance (R) genes. From 345 NBS-LRRs identified in A.duranensis reference genome, 52 were differentially expressed between inoculated and control samples, with the majority occurring in physical clusters unevenly distributed on eight chromosomes with preferential tandem duplication. The majority of these NBS-LRR genes showed contrasting expression behaviour between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma, particularly at 6 days after nematode inoculation, coinciding with the onset of the Hypersensitive Response in the resistant species. The physical clustering of some of these NBS-LRR genes correlated with their expression patterns in the contrasting genotypes. Four NBS-LRR genes exclusively expressed in A. stenosperma are located within clusters on chromosome Aradu. A09, which harbors a QTL for RKN resistance, suggesting a functional role for their physical arrangement and their potential involvement in this defense response. CONCLUSION: The identification of functional novel R genes in wild Arachis species responsible for triggering effective defense cascades can contribute to the crop genetic improvement and enhance peanut resilience to RKN.