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Soft Kernel Durum Wheat—A New Bakery Ingredient?1

Morris C. F., Casper J., Kiszonas A. M., Fuerst E. P., Murray J., Simeone M. C., Lafiandra D.
Cereal foods world 2015 v.60 no.2 pp. 76-83
Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, baking quality, breads, cakes, chromosomes, climate change, consumer demand, cookies, developed countries, drought, durum wheat, gene transfer, genes, grain yield, hardness, heat, ingredients, milling, milling quality, pastries, plant breeding, seeds, semolina, texture, water resources, wheat flour
Compared with common (“bread”) wheat, durum wheat often has an equal or better grain yield under heat and drought stress conditions. Considerable attention worldwide is being focused on how climate change may increase the occurrence of heat and drought while water resources continue to shrink. Consequently, it would be reasonable to increase durum wheat production. However, although production of durum wheat is not limited by its agronomics, it is limited, in part, by its narrow range of culinary end-use product applications, i.e., primarily pastas. To overcome the end-use quality constraints imposed by the very hard kernel texture of durum wheat, the Pina and Pinb genes from bread wheat have been successfully transferred into durum wheat by transferring a short piece of puroindoline gene-bearing chromosome 5D using non-GM means. In theory, a broader, more diverse range of end uses for durum wheat should drive consumer demand and, hence, production. Some of the grain, flour, and baking properties of soft kernel durum wheat are described.