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Antibacterial effect of light emitting diodes of visible wavelengths on selected foodborne pathogens at different illumination temperatures

Ghate, Vinayak S., Ng, Kheng Siang, Zhou, Weibiao, Yang, Hyunsoo, Khoo, Gek Hoon, Yoon, Won-Byong, Yuk, Hyun-Gyun
International journal of food microbiology 2013 v.166 no.3 pp. 399-406
Staphylococcus aureus, novel foods, cooling, Salmonella Typhimurium, food preservation, lighting, food pathogens, wavelengths, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, temperature, antibacterial properties
The antibacterial effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the visible region (461, 521 and 642nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The irradiances of the 461, 521 and 642nm LEDs were 22.1, 16 and 25.4mW/cm2, respectively. Bacterial cultures suspended in tryptic soy broth were illuminated by 10-watt LEDs at a distance of 4.5cm for 7.5h at 20, 15 and 10°C. Regardless of the bacterial strains, bacterial inactivation was observed with the range of 4.6–5.2logCFU/ml at 10 and 15°C after illumination with the 461nm LED, while illumination with the 521nm LED resulted in only 1.0–2.0 log reductions after 7.5h. On the other hand, no antibacterial effect was observed using the 642nm LED treatment. The photodynamic inactivation by 461 and 521nm LEDs was found to be greater at the set temperatures of 10 and 15°C than at 20°C. The D-values for the four bacterial strains at 10 and 15°C after the illumination of 461nm LED ranged from 1.29 to 1.74h, indicating that there was no significant difference in the susceptibility of the bacterial strains to the LED illumination between 10 and 15°C, except for L. monocytogenes. Regardless of the illumination temperature, sublethal injury was observed in all bacterial strains during illumination with the 461 and the 521nm LED and the percentage of injured cells increased as the treatment time increased. Thus, the results show that the antibacterial effect of the LEDs was highly dependent on the wavelength and the illumination temperature. This study suggests the potential of 461 and 521nm LEDs in combination with chilling to be used as a novel food preservation technology.