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Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice

Matić, Slavica, Spadaro, Davide, Prelle, Ambra, Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Garibaldi, Angelo
International journal of food microbiology 2013 v.166 no.3 pp. 515-523
rice, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium fujikuroi, blue light, pathogenicity, genes, fumonisins, chlorosis, growth retardation
Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice.