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In-vitro osteoblast proliferation and in-vivo anti-osteoporotic activity of Bombax ceiba with quantification of Lupeol, gallic acid and β-sitosterol by HPTLC and HPLC

Chauhan, Shashi, Sharma, Aditi, Upadhyay, Navneet Kumar, Singh, Gajender, Lal, Uma Ranjan, Goyal, Rohit
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 233
Bombax ceiba, acute toxicity, alkaline phosphatase, alternative medicine, anesthesia, bark, beta-sitosterol, blood serum, bone density, calcium, cell lines, cell proliferation, enzyme activity, estradiol, females, gallic acid, guidelines, high performance liquid chromatography, histology, laboratory animals, lupeol, methanol, models, osteoblasts, ovariectomy, pain, petroleum, phosphorus, porosity, rats, rheumatoid arthritis, screening, solid phase extraction, solvents
BACKGROUND: Bombax ceiba is used traditionally to treat bone disorders, rheumatism, and joint pain. The aim of the study is to carry out osteogenic activity in-vitro and anti-osteoporotic activity in-vivo of stem bark of B. ceiba in surgical ovariectomy model in female rats. METHODS: Plant drug: B. ceiba stem bark was extracted with solvents petroleum ether and methanol using Soxhlet extraction. In-vitro osteoblastic proliferation study was performed using UMR-106 cell lines. Both the extracts were undergone to acute toxicity study as per OECD423 guidelines. Female Wistar albino rats 180-240 g were used (n = 6). Surgical ovariectomy was performed under anesthesia to induce bone porosity and loss in all animals except normal control and sham control. Each extract was administered at two dose level: 100 and 200 mg/kg and the standard Raloxifene was given at 1 mg/kg orally for 28 days. The phytochemical study of both the extracts was performed using HPLC and HPTLC. RESULTS: A significant osteoblast cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed with B. ceiba extracts in UMR-106 cell lines. Surgical removal of ovaries produced significant (p < 0.05) decline in bone mineral density, bone breaking strength, serum ALP, calcium, phosphorus, and estradiol level and marked bone tissue destruction in histology. Administration of petroleum ether and methanolic extract for 28 days significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the consequences of ovariectomy induced bone porosity and restored the normal architecture of bone, as compared to OVX control. The phytochemical screening of both the extracts were also carried out. The quantification of phytoconstituents showed the presence of β-sitosterol and lupeol in petroleum ether extract, whereas the lupeol is also quantified in the methanolic extract. The presence of gallic acid was quantified in methanolic extract using HPLC. CONCLUSION: B. ceiba: stem bark ameliorated the state of bone fragility and fracture possibly due to estrogenic modulation, as also confirmed by in-vitro osteogenic activity which may be due to the presence of lupeol, gallic acid and β-sitosterol constituents of the plant.