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Efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions using magnetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae bionanomaterial
- Wu, Xin, He, Huijun, Yang, William L., Yu, Jiaping, Yang, Chunping
- Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2018 v.102 no.17 pp. 7597-7610
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, X-ray diffraction, aqueous solutions, atrazine, biodegradation, bioremediation, carbon, deamination, dechlorination, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, glucose, hysteresis, iron, iron oxides, isomerization, magnetism, mineralization, nanoparticles, nitrogen, pH, polyvinyl alcohol, scanning electron microscopy, sodium alginate, transmission electron microscopy
- A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe³⁺ contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the synthesized Fe₃O₄ particles were characterized by XRD, EDX, HR-TEM, FTIR, and hysteresis loops, and the bionanomaterial was characterized by SEM. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 100% was achieved at 28 °C, a pH of 7.0, and 150 rpm with an initial atrazine concentration of 2.0 mg L⁻¹ and that the removal efficiency was still higher than 95.53% even when the initial atrazine concentration was 50 mg L⁻¹. Biodegradation was demonstrated to be the dominant removal mechanism for atrazine because atrazine was consumed as the sole carbon source for S. cerevisiae. The results of GC-MS showed that dechlorination, dealkylation, deamination, isomerization, and mineralization occurred in the process of atrazine degradation, and thus, a new degradation pathway was proposed. These results indicated that this bionanomaterial has great potential for the bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated water.