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Distinct impacts of reductive soil disinfestation and chemical soil disinfestation on soil fungal communities and memberships

Zhao, Jun, Zhou, Xing, Jiang, Anqi, Fan, Juanzi, Lan, Tao, Zhang, Jinbo, Cai, Zucong
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2018 v.102 no.17 pp. 7623-7634
Chaetomium, Fusarium oxysporum, Mortierella, Penicillium, Zopfiella, community structure, dazomet, disease control, disinfestation, ethanol, fungal communities, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, microbial activity, microbiome, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, soil, soil acidification, soil fungi, soil-borne diseases, sugarcane bagasse
Soil disinfestation is an important agricultural practice to conquer soil-borne diseases and thereby ensure crop productivity. Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) had been developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical soil disinfestation (CSD). However, the differences between CSD and RSD on soil-borne pathogen suppression and fungal community structure remain poorly understood. In this work, five treatments, i.e., untreated soil (CK), CSD with 0.5 t ha⁻¹ dazomet (DZ), RSD with 10 t ha⁻¹ ethanol (ET), 15 t ha⁻¹ sugarcane bagasse (SB), and 15 t ha⁻¹ bean dregs (BD), were performed to investigate their influences on disinfestation efficiency, fungal abundance, diversity, and community structure via quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. RSD-related treatments, especially the BD treatment, effectively alleviated soil acidification and salinization. The fungal abundance and microbial activity considerably increased in the BD treatment and significantly declined in the DZ treatment as compared to the CK treatment. Moreover, both CSD and RSD-related treatments significantly inhibited the population of Fusarium oxysporum and the relative abundance of genus Fusarium. Fungal community structure was notably altered by CSD and RSD practices. Furthermore, both CSD and RSD harbored a distinct unique microbiome, with the DZ treatment dominated by the genus Mortierella and BD treatment predominated by the genera Zopfiella, Chaetomium, and Penicillium. Taken together, these results indicate that the BD treatment could considerably alleviate the soil deterioration, improve soil microbial activity, and reassemble a non-pathogen unique microbiome that have more disease-suppressive agents and thus might be a promising disinfestation practice to control soil-borne disease in monoculture system.