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Capillary electrophoresis–tandem mass spectrometry for multiclass analysis of polar marine toxins

Author:
Beach, Daniel G., Kerrin, Elliott S., Thomas, Krista, Quilliam, Michael A., McCarron, Pearse
Source:
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2018 v.410 no.22 pp. 5405-5420
ISSN:
1618-2642
Subject:
capillary electrophoresis, detection limit, domoic acid, electrolytes, formic acid, ionization, isomers, lipophilicity, liquid chromatography, marine toxins, mussels, research and development, seafoods, shellfish, tandem mass spectrometry
Abstract:
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)–MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE–MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood. A novel, highly acidic background electrolyte (5 M formic acid) was designed to maximize protonation of analytes and to allow a high degree of sample stacking to improve the limits of detection. The method was applied to a wide range of regulated and less common toxin analogues, and exhibited a high degree of selectivity between toxin isomers and matrix interference. The limits of detection in mussel tissue were 0.0052 mg/kg for tetrodotoxins, 0.160 mg/kg for domoic acid, and between 0.0018 and 0.120 mg/kg for paralytic shellfish toxins, all of which showed good linearity. Minimal ionization suppression was observed when the response from neat and mussel-matrix-matched standards was corrected with multiple internal standards. Analysis of shellfish matrix reference materials and spiked samples demonstrated good accuracy and precision. Finally, the method was transferred to a commercial CE–MS/MS system to demonstrate its widespread applicability for use in both R & D and routine regulatory settings. The approach of using a highly acidic background electrolyte is of broad interest, and can be considered generally applicable to simultaneous analysis of other classes of small, polar molecules with differing pKₐ values. Graphical abstract ᅟ
Agid:
6088306