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Genetic effects and heterosis of within-boll yield components in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Feiyu Tang, Weujun Xiao
Euphytica 2013 v.194 no.1 pp. 41-51
Gossypium hirsutum, additive effect, bolls, breeding lines, crossing, cultivars, genetic improvement, genetic variance, genotype-environment interaction, heterosis, lint cotton, lint yield, models, oils, parents, phenotypic correlation, progeny, seed yield, seeds, variance, yield components, China
Within-boll yield components are the most basic contributors to lint and seed yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), which is a major source of natural fiber and edible oil throughout the world. Little information is available on genetic effects and heterosis of these traits in cotton. Three cotton cultivars and six breeding lines differing in within-boll yield components were used for this study. Parents and their F₁progeny with reciprocals from a 3×6 factorial mating design were grown at Jiangxi Agricultural University experimental farm in 2008 and 2009. Seven within-boll yield components and two boll bur characters were analyzed under an additive-dominance genetic model with genotype and environment interaction. Additive effects were significant for all traits and dominance effects were significant for all traits except seed mass per seed. Genetic variances for lint mass per seed, SM/S and boll bur weight were primarily additive variances ranging from 39.6 to 58.9 %. Lint mass per boll and seed number per boll variances were primarily due to dominance genetic effects ranging from 36.4 to 48.8 %. Dominance and additive effects were equally important for boll weight, seed mass per boll and boll bur percentage. Additive and additive × environment effects were more important than other effects for lint percentage. A802-1 had the best mean performance and additive effects increasing BW, SM/B, S/B and SM/S, but reduced LP and LM/S. A9-1 and Lu40534 had additive effects associated with increasing LP. The two crosses A9-1×Lu40534 and Tezsh×33B were detected with favorable heterozygous dominant effects and heterosis over best parent for BW, LP, LM/B, SM/B and S/B. Favorable genotypic and phenotypic correlations were identified between within-boll lint yield components (LM/B, LM/S) and within-boll seed yield components (SM/B, S/B, SM/S). These results indicate that simultaneous genetic improvement of multiple within-boll yield components can be expected in breeding populations derived from these cotton cultivars and breeding lines.