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Epidemiology and full genome sequence analysis of H1N1pdm09 from Northeast China

Li, Xiaoyan, Kong, Mei, Chen, Jinying, Su, Xu, Zou, Ming, Guo, Liru, Li, Lin, Ding, Jianqing
Virus genes 2013 v.47 no.2 pp. 199-209
Influenza A virus, amino acid substitution, antigenic variation, epitopes, genes, nucleotide sequences, pandemic, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, proteins, sequence analysis, swine influenza, viruses, China, North America
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1pdm09) was a novel tri-assortment virus that emerged in Mexico and North America in 2009 and caused the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. This study investigated the prevalence pattern and molecular characteristics of H1N1pdm09 in three continuous years from April 2009 to March 2012 in populations of Tianjin, Northeast China. Totally, 3,068 influenza viruses (25.4 %) were detected from 12,089 respiratory specimens. Among them, 41.4 % (1,269/3,068) were H1N1pdm09 positive. 15.1 % (192/1,269) severe respiratory infection cases were H1N1pdm09 positive. H1N1pdm09 was the predominant prevalence subtype in October 2009–March 2010 (69.1 %, 930/1,346) and October 2010–March 2011 (42.1 %, 220/523). Eight isolated H1N1pdm09 viruses from severe infection/death cases in three different years were selected to sequence the whole genome through splicing the sequences following 46 PCRs. HA sequences of seven H1N1pdm09 isolates from mild infection cases were detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HA, NA, M, NP and NS genes of H1N1pdm09 viruses gathered together with swine influenza A (H1N1), whereas PB2 and PA genes originated from avian influenza virus, and PB1 gene originated from human seasonal influenza virus. Identity analysis indicated that all the genes were highly conserved. Compared with vaccine strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1), the maximal mutation gene was HA (0.7–2.6 %), then NA (0.6–1.7 %), last one was M (mutation rate 0–0.6 %). More site substitutions were observed in 2011 isolates than in 2009 and 2010 isolates of HA (p = 0.002), NA (p = 0.003) and PA (p = 0.001) proteins. The amino acid substitution rates were varied among eight gene segments, ranging from 7.39 × 10⁻⁴for PB2 to 7.40 × 10⁻³for NA. The higher dN/ dSrates were observed in HA, PA and NS segments in H1N1pdm09 in Tianjin. Three HA amino acid site substitutions occurred at the HA receptor-binding sites and antigenic determinant, including S179N and K180T (located at antigenic site Sa) in A/Tianjinhedong/SWL44/2011(H1) and A/Tianjinjinnan/SWL41/2011(H1), and D239N (located at antigenic site Ca) in A/Tianjinninghe/SWL49/2009(H1). Antigenic drift may have occurred in H1N1pdm09 with time. No oseltamivir-resistance site substitution was observed at 275 and 295 sites. Amino acid residue site at 31 in M2 protein was N in all 8 isolates, which suggested that H1N1pdm09 was resistant to amantadine.