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Effect of Salt Reduction on Children's Acceptance of Bread
- Rannou, Cécile, Texier, Florence, Marzin, Cécile, Nicklaus, Sophie, Cariou, Véronique, Courcoux, Philippe, Prost, Carole
- Journal of food science 2018 v.83 no.8 pp. 2204-2211
- adults, breadmaking, childhood, children, cohesion, eating habits, flour, grain products, healthy diet, mouth, nutritive value, odor compounds, odors, saltiness, school lunch, sourdough, texture, traditional technology, white bread
- Salt reduction is becoming a major concern for public authorities, especially in cereal products. As childhood is important for the development of healthy eating habits, this study aimed to formulate salt‐reduced breads with satisfying sensory properties for children. Sourdough and an artisanal bread‐making process were used to compensate the flavor loss due to salt reduction. French breads (FBs) made with sourdough and artisanal processing were compared with white breads (WBs). Two salt levels were applied (1.2 and 1.8 g /100 g flour). To determine their acceptability and characterization, the four breads were assessed (i) by an adult panel (n = 39) according to cohesiveness, overall odor intensity, overall aroma in the mouth and saltiness intensity and (ii) a panel of children (n = 100, aged 6 to 11 years) according to overall liking and saltiness intensity. Finally, consumption by children (n = 89, aged 6 to 11 years) was measured during school lunch to evaluate the acceptability of salt reduction in a real consumption context. Both formulation and salt level induced physical and sensory changes in breads perceived by adults. They described WB as less dense, cohesive, and aromatic but more odorant than FB. Saltiness differences were perceived by adults but not by children. Children showed a preference for the saltiest breads and the FB but these drivers of preference were not confirmed during consumption measurements. These results shed new light on how natural solutions to enhance the flavor of bread can reduce its salt level while maintaining acceptability. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Salt reduction in bread could be compensated by the use of sourdough and an artisanal bread‐making process. These methods allow an improvement of the nutritional quality of breads while maintaining their acceptance by young consumers by favoring the development of appealing organoleptic characteristics (aroma, texture). These methods are natural, easy to implement, and could be adapted to other fermented products in order to improve their nutritional quality.