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Differential response of hexaploid and tetraploid wheat to interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and low phosphorus

Pandey, Renu, Lal, Milan Kumar, Vengavasi, Krishnapriya
Plant cell reports 2018 v.37 no.9 pp. 1231-1244
Triticum aestivum, absorption, acid phosphatase, carbon dioxide, citrate (si)-synthase, climate change, cultivars, dry matter partitioning, economic development, enzyme activity, exudation, food security, gene expression, hexaploidy, hydroponics, malate dehydrogenase, nutrients, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, phosphorus, root hairs, root shoot ratio, surface area, tetraploidy, wheat
KEY MESSAGE: Hexaploid wheat is more responsive than tetraploid to the interactive effects of elevated [CO₂] and low P in terms of carboxylate efflux, enzyme activity and gene expression (TaPT1 and TaPAP). Availability of mineral nutrients to plants under changing climate has become a serious challenge to food security and economic development. An understanding of how elevated [CO₂] influences phosphorus (P) acquisition processes at the whole-plant level would be critical in selecting cultivars as well as to maintain optimum yield in limited-P conditions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) grown hydroponically with sufficient and low P concentration were exposed to elevated and ambient [CO₂]. Improved dry matter partitioning towards root resulted in increased root-to-shoot ratio, root length, volume, surface area, root hair length and density at elevated [CO₂] with low P. Interaction of low P and [CO₂] induced activity of enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase) in root tissue resulting in twofold increase in carboxylates and acid phosphatase exudation. Physiological absorption capacity of roots showed that plants alter their uptake kinetics by increasing affinity (low Kₘ) in response to elevated [CO₂] under low P supply. Increased relative expression of genes, purple acid phosphatase (TaPAP) and high-affinity Pi transporter (TaPT1) in roots induced by elevated [CO₂] and low P supported our physiological observations. Hexaploid wheat (PBW-396) being more responsive to elevated [CO₂] at low P supply as compared to tetraploid (PDW-233) necessitates the ploidy effect to be explored further which might be advantageous under changing climate.