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Aerogels and metal–organic frameworks for environmental remediation and energy production

Kumar, Amit, Rana, Anamika, Sharma, Gaurav, Sharma, Shweta, Naushad, Mu., Mola, Genene Tessema, Dhiman, Pooja, Stadler, Florian J.
Environmental chemistry letters 2018 v.16 no.3 pp. 797-820
aerogels, air, carbon dioxide, climate change, coordination polymers, energy, heavy metals, hydrogen, ligands, metal ions, methane, nitrogen oxides, photolysis, pollutants, pollution, porosity, remediation, renewable energy sources, surface area
Environmental pollution and climate change are requiring new methods to clean pollutants and produce sustainable energy. Aerogels and metal organic frameworks are emerging as advanced porous materials with higher functionality, high surface area, high porosity and flexible chemistry. Aerogels are dried gels prepared using the sol–gel procedure, whereas metal organic frameworks are networks of organic ligands and metal ions connected by coordination bonds. Applications of aerogels include the removal of heavy metals, CO₂ capture and reduction, photodegradation of pollutants, air cleanup and water splitting. This article reviews the synthesis and types of aerogels and metal organic frameworks, and the application to pollutant removal, energy production including hydrogen, methane reforming, CO₂ conversion and NOx removal.