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Influence of Maturation Stages in Different Varieties of Wine Grapes (Vitis vinifera) on the Production of Ochratoxin A and Its Modified Forms by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger
- Freire, Luísa, Guerreiro, Tatiane M., Caramês, Elem T. S., Lopes, Letícia S., Orlando, Eduardo A., Pereira, Giuliano E., Lima Pallone, Juliana A., Catharino, Rodrigo R., Sant’Ana, Anderson S.
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.33 pp. 8824-8831
- Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, Vitis vinifera, anthocyanins, biomarkers, fungi, glucose, high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, ochratoxin A, pH, total soluble solids, wine grapes
- Ochratoxin A is the main contaminant mycotoxin of grapes produced mainly by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius. Besides, it is possible that the formation of modified mycotoxin occurs through the plant defense mechanism or also by fungus actions itself. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of grape variety and maturation stage on the formation of OTA and modified mycotoxin. The determination of OTA was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the detection of modified ochratoxin. A positive correlation was observed between the following grapes physicochemical parameters: pH, total soluble solids, total glycosides in glucose, total anthocyanin, and OTA levels produced by A. niger and A. carbonarius. Therefore, the higher the concentrations of these parameters, the greater the production of mycotoxin in grapes. Among the elected targets, we identified the 14-decarboxy-ochratoxin A in Muscat Italia variety at veraison and 15 days after the beginning of veraison stages; and ethylamide-ochratoxin A as a biomarker in the Syrah variety at the ripeness stage.