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Selective in vitro inhibition of Leishmania donovani by a semi-purified fraction of wild mushroom Grifola frondosa

Sultana, Sirin Salma, Ghosh, Joydip, Chakraborty, Sondipon, Mukherjee, Debarati, Dey, Somaditya, Mallick, Suvadip, Dutta, Aritri, Paloi, Soumitra, Khatua, Somanjana, Dutta, Tanmoy, Bhattacharya, Soumen, Acharya, Krishnendu, Ghorai, Narayan, Pal, Chiranjib
Experimental parasitology 2018
Grifola frondosa, Laetiporus, Leishmania donovani, Meripilus giganteus, Polyporaceae, amastigotes, amphotericin B, antileishmanials, antimony, antiprotozoal properties, apoptosis, biosynthesis, cytokines, ethanol, gluconates, inhibitory concentration 50, lipids, macrophages, mushrooms, nitric oxide, parasites, promastigotes, sodium, splenocytes
The current study was designed to assess the anti-leishmanial effect of a semi-purified fraction of wild mushroom Grifola frondosa against Leishmania donovani, in vitro. A total of five extracts from three wild mushrooms [Grifola frondosa (family, Meripilaceae) Laetiporus sulphurous (family, Polyporaceae) and Meripilus giganteus (family, Meripilaceae) were explored for novel anti-leishmanial leads against promastigotes. The ethanol extract of G. frondosa was selected as the most efficient against L. donovani promastigotes (IC50: 93.9 μg/mL). A semi-purified fraction was obtained from an active ethanol extract of G. frondosa and found to inhibit the survival of promastigotes of L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) significantly (IC50: 20.37 μg/mL) and it also had some effect against L. major LV39 (MRHO/Sv/59/P strain) and L. tropica WR683 (MHOM/SU/58/OD) strains at higher concentrations (IC50: 46.08 μg/mL and 53.79 μg/mL respectively). The semi-purified fraction also interfered in lipid biosynthesis, altered parasite morphology and induced apoptosis in L. donovani promastigotes. The semi-purified fraction was also effective against intracellular amastigotes in infected macrophages and enhanced the release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, in vitro. Interestingly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of the semi-purified fraction against the intracellular amastigotes (IC50: 2.48 μg/mL) was much lower in comparison to promastigotes (IC50: 20.37 μg/mL). The semi-purified fraction was found to inhibit the intracellular amastigotes slightly more efficiently in comparison to conventional anti-leishmanial drugs; sodium antimony gluconate, amphotericin B, miltefosine and paromomycin and noticeably non-toxic towards host splenocytes. The findings of the present study established that G. frondosa might be a natural resource for development of a new anti-leishmanial lead.