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Gastric digestion of milk protein ingredients: Study using an in vitro dynamic model

Wang, Xin, Ye, Aiqian, Lin, Quanquan, Han, Jianzhong, Singh, Harjinder
Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.8 pp. 6842-6852
casein, coagulation, digesta, digestion, dried skim milk, dynamic models, food matrix, humans, hydrolysis, ingredients, micelles, milk protein concentrate, pH, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sodium, sodium caseinate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, whey protein isolate
The coagulation behavior and the kinetics of protein hydrolysis of skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate (MPC), calcium-depleted MPC, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate (WPI), and heated (90°C, 20 min) WPI under gastric conditions were examined using an advanced dynamic digestion model (i.e., a human gastric simulator). During gastric digestion, these protein ingredients exhibited various pH profiles as a function of the digestion time. Skim milk powder and MPC, which contained casein micelles, formed cohesive, ball-like curds with a dense structure after 10 min of digestion; these curds did not disintegrate over 220 min of digestion. Partly calcium-depleted MPC and sodium caseinate, which lacked an intact casein micellar structure, formed curds at approximately 40 min, and a loose, fragmented curd structure was observed after 220 min of digestion. In contrast, no curds were formed in either WPI or heated WPI after 220 min of digestion. In addition, the hydrolysis rates and the compositions of the digesta released from the human gastric simulator were different for the various protein ingredients, as detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Skim milk powder and MPC exhibited slower hydrolysis rates than calcium-depleted MPC and sodium caseinate. The most rapid hydrolysis occurred in the WPI (with and without heating). This was attributed to the formation of different structured curds under gastric conditions. The results offer novel insights about the coagulation kinetics of proteins from different milk protein ingredients, highlighting the critical role of the food matrix in affecting the course of protein digestion.