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A high-temperature passaging attenuated Pseudorabies vaccine protects piglets completely against emerging PRV variant

Liang, Chao, Tong, Wu, Zheng, Hao, Liu, Fei, Wu, Jiqiang, Li, Guoxin, Zhou, En-min, Tong, Guangzhi
Research in veterinary science 2017 v.112 pp. 109-115
Aujeszky disease, Suid herpesvirus 1, antibodies, cytopathogenicity, death, farms, genes, immunity, livestock and meat industry, piglets, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, vaccines, virulence, viruses
Emerging variant of pseudorabies virus (PRV) have evaded the antiviral immunity of commercially available PRV vaccine and have led to PRV outbreaks in Chinese pig farms. Here, we attenuated a PRV variant strain by serial passages in vitro and evaluate the protective efficacy of the attenuated strain as a vaccine candidate. The virulent PRV variant strain JS-2012 was continuously passaged in Vero cells at 40°C and attenuated rapidly. After 90 passages in Vero cells, the passaged virus lost its ability to cause death in 2-week-old piglets. The 120th passage virus was avirulent in the sucking piglets. An attenuated strain, JS-2012-F120 derived from the 120th passage virus by three rounds of plaque cloning grew better than its parent strain JS-2012 in Vero cells and showed notably different cytopathic effects and plaque morphology from JS-2012. PCR combined with sequence analysis showed that JS-2012-F120 contained a 2307-bp deletion covering nucleotide 487 of gE gene to 531 of US2 gene. After inoculation with JS-2012-F120, young piglets were completely protected from challenge with the classical and emerging virulent PRVs. Moreover, the piglets did not develop specific gE antibodies. Thus, JS-2012-F120 appears to be a promising marker vaccine to control PRV variant circulating in Chinese pig farms, and the high-temperature passaging in vitro was an efficient method to attenuated alphaherpesvirus.