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Hyperbranched mixed-mode anion-exchange polymeric sorbent for highly selective extraction of nine acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from human urine

Huang, Chaonan, Li, Yun, Yang, Jiajia, Peng, Junyu, Tan, Jun, Fan, Yun, Wang, Longxing, Chen, Jiping
Talanta 2018
anion exchange, copolymerization, detection limit, diclofenac, emulsions, epoxides, high performance liquid chromatography, humans, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ion exchange capacity, ketoprofen, methylamine, quaternary ammonium compounds, resorcinol, solid phase extraction, sorbents, statistical analysis, surface area, urine
This paper describes the poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) supported synthesis of quaternized hyperbranched macromolecules (QHMs) and its use as a highly selective, high-capacity mixed-mode anion-exchange (MAX) sorbent. In detail, the aminated PDVB support was firstly synthesized by copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate via Pickering emulsion polymerization. The QHMs were then grafted on PDVB by a divergent synthesis involving consecutive reactions of resorcinol diglycidyl ether with methylamine (N, N-dimethylethanolamine for terminal epoxides), which brought in a high density of quaternary ammonium functionalities. The changes of specific surface area (SBET), pore volume and ion exchange capacity (IEC) with generation number reveal that the QHMs have been grown successfully within the large meso-channels of the porous aminated PDVB. The best compromise between the SBET, pore volume and IEC was obtained at the 4ᵗʰ generation (G4). Due to the highest IEC (0.47meq/g), the G4-QHMs was successfully applied for mixed-mode solid phase extraction (SPE) of acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). An efficient approach based on the mixed-mode SPE coupled with HPLC-UV was developed for highly selective extraction and cleanup of nine NSAIDs (tolmetin, TLM; ketoprofen, KEP; naproxen, NAP; flurbiprofen, FLB; diclofenac, DIC; indomethacin, INM; ibuprofen, IBP; mefenamic acid, MFA; tolfenamic acid, TFA) in human urine samples. Under the optimized conditions, the method exhibited satisfactory recoveries ranging from 81.9% to 104.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values below 8.5%, good sensitivity (0.004 – 0.009μgmL⁻¹ limit of detection) and good linearity (coefficient of determination, R² > 0.997, 0.01 – 0.2μgmL⁻¹ for NAP, 0.05 – 1.0μgmL⁻¹ for FLB, DIC, INM, MFA, TFA, 0.1 – 2.0μgmL⁻¹ for TLM, KEP, IBP). The hyperbranched MAX sorbent is superior to Oasis HLB and comparable to Oasis MAX in obtaining clean chromatographic profiles. Our results demonstrate the potential application of the hyperbranched MAX for complex sample analysis.