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Spatio-temporal variations of atmospheric and soil polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in highly industrialized region of Dilovasi
- Cetin, Banu, Yurdakul, Sema, Odabasi, Mustafa
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.646 pp. 1164-1171
- air, industrialization, pollution, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, seasonal variation, soil, soil-atmosphere interactions, spatial variation, summer, temperature, urban areas, volatilization, waste incineration, winter
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in ambient air of a highly industrialized region at 23 different sampling sites for 12 months. Total concentrations of 8 PBDE congeners (Σ8PBDE) were found to be between 5.73 and 520 pg m−3 (94.7 ± 78.9; average ± SD) and BDE-209 was the predominant congener, followed by BDE-47 and/or BDE-99. Their contributions to Σ8PBDE were 71 ± 13, 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 4%; respectively. Compared to previous studies around the world, high concentrations detected in Dilovasi demonstrated the severity of atmospheric PBDE pollution in the area. For all sampling sites, average PBDE concentration obtained in summer (118.5 ± 98.7 pg m−3) was higher than one found in winter period (79.7 ± 59.1 pg m−3) and this seasonal difference was more obvious in industrial/urban sites (p < 0.05), probably due to enhanced volatilization from ongoing PBDE sources such as waste incineration and iron-steel plants. The soil-air exchange tendencies of PBDEs did not show substantial differences between the sampling periods with small variations for each congener. All congeners either tend to deposit to soil or to be within the equilibrium range for all seasons. This reflects the impact of local ongoing sources rather than temperature on the direction of soil-air exchange of PBDEs in this region. Specific congener ratios such as BDE-47/-99 and -99/-100 confirmed the impact of local sources rather than long-range transport on PBDE congeners in the study area. According to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) results, the BDE-209 content of the first factor was found to be 91.7% and this factor was attributed to the deca-BDE technical formulations. The second factor was highly rich with both BDE-183 (%61) and BDE-28 (%52) and identified as octa-BDE technical products. The last factor was highly loaded with BDE-99, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-154 and BDE-153 and has been determined as the penta-BDE commercial formulations.