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Effects of ferric sulfate and polyaluminum chloride coagulation enhanced treatment wetlands on Typha growth, soil and water chemistry
- Liang, Yan Ling, Kraus, Tamara E.C., Silva, Lucas C.R., Bachand, Philip A.M., Bachand, Sandra M., Doane, Timothy A., Horwath, William R.
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.648 pp. 116-124
- Typha, adverse effects, allometry, basins, biomass production, chlorides, chlorosis, coagulation, ferric sulfate, hydrochemistry, iron, leaves, necrosis, nutrient content, phosphates, phytomass, plant growth, sediments, soil, soil analysis, subsidence, surface water, toxicity, vegetation, water quality, water treatment, wetlands, wilting, California
- Land surface subsidence is a concern in many deltas worldwide as it contributes to water quality degradation, loss of fertile land and increased potential for levee failure. As a possible solution to these concerns, on-site coagulation enhanced treatment wetlands (CETWs), coagulation water treatment followed by wetland passage serving as a settling basin, were implemented in a field-scale study located on a subsided island of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in northern California under three treatments; coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PAC), coagulation with ferric sulfate and an untreated control. Because CETWs offer a relatively novel solution for water quality improvement and subsidence reversal due to its low-infrastructure requirements and in-situ nature, effects from these systems remain uncharted and they may have adverse effects on plant biomass production that also contribute to sediment accretion. This study focuses on the effect CETWs had on the growth of Typha spp.; the dominant vegetation in the wetlands. Plant growth parameters and nutrient content were measured in conjunction with soil, pore water and surface water chemistry. Soil analysis indicated there was no intermixing of newly formed flocs and original soil material. Where there was significant deposition of floc, PAC treatment reduced phosphate concentrations and ferric sulfate treatment increased total Fe concentrations in surrounding water compared to the control. Results indicated coagulation treatments had no negative effects on Typha leaf nutrient content, Typha growth or allometric parameters. Additionally, no signs of plant toxicity such as necrosis, wilting or chlorosis were observed in any of the treatments. Overall, this study suggests that CETWs are viable treatment option for water quality improvement and sediment accretion while having no negative impact on the growth of Typha plants.