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Cellulose acetate/poly lactic acid coaxial wet-electrospun scaffold containing citalopram-loaded gelatin nanocarriers for neural tissue engineering applications

Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi, Salehi, Majid, Hojjati-Emami, Shahriar
International journal of biological macromolecules 2017 v.103 pp. 701-708
Schwann cells, biodegradability, cell viability, cellulose acetate, coatings, contact angle, gelatin, hydrophilicity, laboratory animals, light scattering, liquids, muscles, nanocarriers, nerve tissue, particle size, phosphates, porosity, rats, scanning electron microscopes, tissue engineering, weight loss
The current study aimed to develop a biodegradable three-dimensional drug-loaded scaffold with the core–shell structured fibrils using coaxial wet-electrospinning for neural tissue engineering application. Poly lactic acid was wet-electrospun as the core, whereas cellulose acetate was fabricated into the fibril’s shell. The scaffold then was coated with the citalopram-loaded gelatin nanocarriers (CGNs) produced by nanoprecipitation method. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that the fibrils formed a nonwoven structure with the average diameter of ∼950nm. The particle size measurement by a dynamic light scattering device showed an average diameter of ∼200nm. The porosity measurement via the liquid displacement method showed that the scaffold could not meet the accepted ideal porosity percentage of above 80%, and the measured porosity percentage was ∼60%. The contact angle measurement displayed that the CGN coating made the scaffold highly hydrophilic with a zero degree contact angle. In vitro degradation study in the phosphate buffered saline revealed that the weight of the uncoated scaffold remained relatively constant. However, the CGNs-coated scaffold showed ∼45% weight-loss percentage after 40days. Cytocompatibility evaluation using rat Schwann cells demonstrated that the CGNs-coated scaffold possessed higher cell viability than the uncoated scaffold. Finally, the scaffold was developed into a nerve guidance conduit and surgically implanted in the sciatic nerve defect in Wistar rats. The results of the sciatic functional index, hot plate latency and weight-loss percentage of the wet gastrocnemius muscle, demonstrated that the citalopram-containing scaffold could ameliorate the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve-injured animals which makes it a potential candidate for the neural tissue engineering applications.