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Developmental neurotoxicity of succeeding generations of insecticides

Abreu-Villaça, Yael, Levin, Edward D.
Environment international 2017 v.99 pp. 55-77
adverse effects, carbamates, humans, insects, neonicotinoid insecticides, neurotoxicity, nontarget organisms, organophosphorus compounds, pyrethrins, risk
Insecticides are by design toxic. They must be toxic to effectively kill target species of insects. Unfortunately, they also have off-target toxic effects that can harm other species, including humans. Developmental neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent off-target toxic risks of insecticides. Over the past seven decades several classes of insecticides have been developed, each with their own mechanisms of effect and toxic side effects. This review covers the developmental neurotoxicity of the succeeding generations of insecticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotinoids. The goal of new insecticide development is to more effectively kill target species with fewer toxic side effects on non-target species. From the experience with the developmental neurotoxicity caused by the generations of insecticides developed in the past advice is offered how to proceed with future insecticide development to decrease neurotoxic risk.