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Antithrombotic potential of esculin 7, 3′, 4′, 5′, 6′-O-pentasulfate (EPS) for its role in thrombus reduction using rat thrombosis model

Ahmad, Irshad, Sharma, Swati, Gupta, Neha, Rashid, Qudsia, Abid, Mohammad, Ashraf, Mohammad Z., Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman
International journal of biological macromolecules 2018
adverse effects, anticoagulants, binding capacity, cell lines, cytotoxicity, dose response, fluorescence, heparin, molecular models, prothrombin, rats, thrombin, thromboplastin, thrombosis
Currently available anticoagulants for prevention and treatment of thrombosis have several limitations, thus, small organic scaffolds that can dissolve clots in vivo in a dose dependent manner with lesser side effects are highly desirable. Here we report the synthesis of esculin pentasulfate (EPS) and assessment of its in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo anticoagulant and antithrombotic potential. Assessment of in vitro clotting times showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT) in the presence of EPS. EPS also showed remarkable reduction in thrombus formation when administered in occlusion induced thrombotic rats at a low dose (2.5 mg/kg). Further, assessment of clot rate with plasma isolated from EPS treated rats confirmed its anticoagulation potential. EPS at varying concentrations showed no significant cytotoxic effect on HEK293 cell line. Further, molecular docking analysis of EPS with known anticoagulant proteins [(antithrombin (ATIII) and heparin cofactor II (HCF II)] that require heparin revealed good binding affinity (−7.9 kcal/mol) with ATIII but not with HCF II. ATIII when incubated with EPS showed increased fluorescence intensity, with no change in secondary structure. Overall, our results clearly show the in vivo modulation of thrombus formation using a modified natural scaffold EPS.