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Triclosan toxicity alters behavioral and hematological parameters and vital antioxidant and neurological enzymes in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878)

Sahu, Vikas Kumar, Karmakar, Sutanu, Kumar, Saurav, Shukla, S.P., Kumar, Kundan
Aquatic toxicology 2018 v.202 pp. 145-152
Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, acetylcholinesterase, anthropogenic activities, aquatic environment, blood serum, brain, catalase, chlorides, enzyme activity, enzyme inhibition, erythrocyte count, fish, glutathione transferase, hematocrit, hemoglobin, lethal concentration 50, leukocyte count, liver, metabolites, oxygen, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, tissues, toxicity, triclosan
Triclosan and its metabolites are detected in a diverse aquatic environment and are major concerns for various aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the impact of acute and sub-lethal exposure of triclosan on behaviour, activities of acetylcholinesterase and selected antioxidant enzymes, haematological and serum gas-electrolyte parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The 96 h LC50 of triclosan for P. hypophthalmus was estimated as 1458 μg L−1. Further, sub-lethal triclosan exposure to 1/15th (97 μg L-1), 1/10th (145 μg L-1) and 1/5th (291 μg L-1) of 96 h LC50 concentration for a period of 45 days lead to decrease in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume of blood while total leukocyte count increased significantly (p < 0.05) as compared to control. A concentration-dependent increase in the serum chloride and decrease in partial pressure of oxygen in blood serum was noted on 45th day. An increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in gill and liver tissues and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain was observed on 15th, 30th and 45th day of exposure which was dependent on both - concentration of triclosan and duration of exposure. A significant high activity of glutathione-S-transferase in gill and liver tissue was observed in triclosan exposed groups in comparison to control during the experimental period. The study shows that long-term sub-lethal exposure of triclosan to fish can lead to several physiological alterations such as enzymatic scavenging of oxygen radicals and the normal neurological functions mediated by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. With increasing anthropogenic activity, the study provides a convincing evidence for the necessity of a regulated use and safer disposal of triclosan to the environment.