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Body composition measures and cardiovascular risk in high-risk ethnic groups

Diemer, F.S., Brewster, L.M., Haan, Y.C., Oehlers, G.P., van Montfrans, G.A., Nahar-van Venrooij, L.M.W.
Clinical nutrition 2019 v.38 no.1 pp. 450-456
ancestry, at-risk population, bioelectrical impedance, body mass index, coronary disease, lean body mass, men, models, nationalities and ethnic groups, regression analysis, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, women, Suriname
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in Suriname, a middle-income country with predominantly people of African and Asian ancestry. We examined whether the more comprehensive body composition measures determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are superior to the more traditional BMI and waist measures in relation to cardiovascular risk.Data from the cross-sectional Healthy Life in Suriname (HELISUR) study were used to calculate BMI, waist-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and waist circumference. BIA was used to estimate fat percentage, fat-free mass index, and fat-to-fat-free mass ratio. High cardiovascular risk was defined as 1) a 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease risk score ≥10% in African-Surinamese and ≥12% in Asian-Surinamese, and 2) an increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity >10 m/s). Using logistic regression analysis, we pre-selected the strongest correlate (i.e. lowest p-value below 0.05) of all body composition items for both outcomes of cardiovascular risk separately, and subsequently, used forward logistic regression modelling to determine whether other measures added value to the initial model with the strongest correlate (−2 log-likelihood (–2LL) of initial model minus −2LL of new model, χ-square statistic >3.841, 1 df). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity.We examined 691 participants (65% women; 48% African-Surinamese) with a mean age of 42 (SD 14) years. Waist circumference was the strongest correlate for high 10-year CVD risk in the total group, in men and African-Surinamese. In Asian-Surinamese, fat-free mass index was the strongest correlate of high 10-year CVD risk. Increased arterial stiffness was most strongly related with waist-to-height ratio in the total group and in African-Surinamese, and with BMI in men. None of the measures were significantly associated in women (for both outcomes) and Asian-Surinamese (for increased arterial stiffness). Forward selection showed that only BMI added value next to waist-to-height ratio in the total group in relation to increased arterial stiffness.Waist measures, in particular waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio, and BMI should be used in African and Asian-Surinamese to identify who is at increased cardiovascular risk. Overall, we found little advantage in using BIA measures rather than simple anthropometric measures.