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Cost-effectiveness of sex-neutral HPV-vaccination in Sweden, accounting for herd-immunity and sexual behaviour

Wolff, Ellen, Elfström, K. Miriam, Haugen Cange, Hedda, Larsson, Sofie, Englund, Helene, Sparén, Pär, Roth, Adam
Vaccine 2018 v.36 no.34 pp. 5160-5165
boys, cost effectiveness, girls, herd immunity, men, oropharyngeal neoplasms, prices, quality-adjusted life year, sexual behavior, simulation models, vaccination, vaccines, women, Sweden
The aim was to assess cost-effectiveness of expanding the Swedish HPV-vaccination program to include preadolescent boys, by comparing health-effects and costs of HPV-related disease, with a sex-neutral vaccination program versus only vaccinating girls.We used a dynamic compartmental model to simulate the burden of HPV16/18-related disease in Sweden, accounting for indirect effects of vaccination through herd-immunity. The model accounted for sexual behaviour, such as age preferences and men who have sex with men. The main outcome was number of individuals with HPV-related cancers (cervical, genital, anal and oropharyngeal cancer) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Costs included in the analysis were those incurred when treating HPV-related cancer and CIN, production losses during sick-leave, and acquisition and administration of vaccine. Health effects were measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The time horizon was set to 100 years, and both effects and costs were discounted by 3% annually. Health effects and costs were accumulated over the time horizon and used to create an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.A sex-neutral vaccination program would reduce HPV-related cancer and CIN, both due to direct effects among vaccinated as well as through herd-immunity, further decreasing HPV-related cancer burden annually by around 60 cases among men and women respectively in steady-state. The cost per gained QALY was estimated to 40,000 euro. Applying the procurement price of 2017, sex-neutral vaccination was dominant.Introducing a sex-neutral HPV-vaccination program would be good value for money also in Sweden where there this 80% coverage in the current HPV-vaccination program for preadolescent girls. The cost-effectiveness of a sex-neutral program is highly dependent on the price of the vaccine, the lower the price the more favourable it is to also vaccinate boys.