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Replication timing of large Sorex granarius (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) telomeres

Minina, Julia M., Karamysheva, Tatjana V., Rubtsov, Nicolaj B., Zhdanova, Natalia S.
Protoplasma 2018 v.255 no.5 pp. 1477-1486
DNA damage, Sorex, cattle, cytoplasm, fibroblasts, homologous recombination, mink, ribosomal DNA, shrews, telomeres
Previously, we described the unique feature of telomeric regions in Iberian shrew Sorex granarius: its telomeres have two ranges of size, very small (3.8 kb of telomeric repeats on average) and very large discontinuous telomeres (213 kb) interrupted with 18S rDNA. In this study, we have demonstrated extraordinary replication pattern of S. granarius large telomeres that have not been shown before in other studied mammal. Using the ReD-FISH procedure, we observed prolonged, through S period, large telomere replication. Furthermore, revealed ReD-FISH asymmetric signals were probably caused by partial replication of telomeres within an hour of 5-bromodeoxyuridine treatment due to the large size and special organization. We also found that in contrast to the telomeric halo from primary fibroblasts of bovine, mink, and common shrew, telomere halo of S. granarius consists of multiple loops bundled together, some of which contain rDNA. Here, we suggested several replicons firing possibly stochastic in each large telomere. Finally, we performed the TIF assay to reveal DNA damage responses at the telomeres, and along with TIF in nuclei, we found large bodies of telomeric DNA and ɤ-H2AX in the cytoplasm and on the surface of fibroblasts. We discuss the possibility of additional origin activation together with recombination-dependent replication pathways, mainly homologous recombination including BIR for replication fork stagnation overcoming and further S. granarius large telomere replication.