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Managing Aedes aegypti populations in the first Zika transmission zones in the continental United States

Stoddard, Philip K.
Acta tropica 2018
Aedes aegypti, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zika virus, adulticides, adults, aerial application, bacteria, disease transmission, larvicides, mosquito-borne diseases, naled, pesticide application, pyrethrins, urban areas, Florida
The African Zika virus swept across the Pacific, reaching the New World in 2014. In July, 2016, Miami-Dade County, Florida became the locus of the first mosquito-borne Zika transmission zones in the continental United States. Control efforts were guided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including aerial and truck sprays of adulticides and larvicides. To improve our understanding of how best to fight Zika transmission in an urban environment in the developed world, trap counts of adult Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from the treatment zones were analyzed to determine efficacy of the different insecticide treatments. Analysis revealed that application of four different ester pyrethroid and one non-ester pyrethroid had no statistically significant effect on mosquito counts. Aerial application of naled, a potent organophosphate adulticide, produced significant but short-lived drops in Ae. aegypti counts in the first two applications in the first active transmission zone (Wynwood), then lost some efficacy with subsequent application. In the other active transmission zone (Miami Beach), naled produced no measurable effect in the first three applications, and only a small, transient, and marginally significant reduction in the fourth application. Repeated application of the larvicidal bacterium Bti was accompanied by steady declines of Ae. aegypti populations in both sites. Zika transmission ceased in the first transmission zone, but expanded in the second transmission zone during this period. Specific recommendations are proposed for future treatments of urban mosquitoes.