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GDC-0084 inhibits cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell growth

Ding, Ling-tao, Zhao, Peng, Yang, Min-lie, Lv, Guo-zhong, Zhao, Tian-lan
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.503 no.3 pp. 1941-1948
apoptosis, cell cycle checkpoints, cell growth, fibroblasts, humans, keratinocytes, mice, neoplasm cells, phosphorylation, skin (animal), squamous cell carcinoma
GDC-0084 is a novel and potent small-molecule PI3K-mTOR dual inhibitor. The present study examined its potential activity in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) cells. Our results show that GDC-0084 treatment at nanomole concentrations potently inhibited survival and proliferation of established (A431, SCC-13 and SCL-1 lines) and primary human cSCC cells. GDC-0084 induced apoptosis activation and cell cycle arrest in the cSCC cells. It was more efficient than other known PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors in killing cSCC cells, but was non-cytotoxic to the normal human skin fibroblasts/keratinocytes. In A431 cells and primary cSCC cells, GDC-0084 blocked phosphorylation of key PI3K-Akt-mTOR components, including p85, Akt, S6K1 and S6. GDC-0084 also inhibited DNA-PKcs activation in cSCC cells. Significantly, restoring DNA-PKcs activation by a constitutively active-DNA-PKcs (S2056D) partially inhibited GDC-0084-induced cell death and apoptosis in A431 cells. In vivo, GDC-0084 daily gavage potently inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in mice. In GDC-0084-treated tumor tissues PI3K-Akt-mTOR and DNA-PKcs activation were significantly inhibited. In summary, GDC-0084 inhibits human cSCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo through blocking PI3K-Akt-mTOR and DNA-PKcs signalings.