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Fortification of γ-aminobutyric acid and bioactive compounds in Cucurbita moschata by novel two-step fermentation using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum

Park, Eun-Jin, Garcia, Coralia V., Youn, Sun-Joo, Park, Chi-Deok, Lee, Sam-Pin
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2019 v.102 pp. 22-29
Bacillus subtilis, Cucurbita moschata, Lactobacillus plantarum, acidity, bioactive compounds, cell viability, fermentation, food industry, gamma-aminobutyric acid, ingredients, mucilages, novel foods, pH, pumpkins
Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) was co-fermented using Bacillus subtilis HA and Lactobacillus plantarum EJ2014 for producing a novel food ingredient fortified with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and bioactive compounds. After the first fermentation, the broth showed pH 6.1, 0.26% acidity, 8.9 log CFU/mL viable cell counts of B. subtilis, 2.61% mucilage, and a consistency index of 5.43 Pa·sn. After the second fermentation, the broth indicated pH 5.1 and 0.23% acidity. The viable cell counts of B. subtilis decreased to 7.7 log CFU/mL, while L. plantarum counts increased from 7.4 log CFU/mL to 9.1 log CFU/mL by the end of the co-fermentation. The final mucilage content was 0.58% and consistency index was 0.15 Pa·sn. The co-fermented pumpkin contained 1.47% GABA, indicating that the MSG precursor was successfully utilized by the stepwise fermentation. Therefore, the co-fermented pumpkin paste could potentially be used as a novel ingredient for the food industry.