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Dendritic cell-mediated delivery of doxorubicin-polyglycerol-nanodiamond composites elicits enhanced anti-cancer immune response in glioblastoma

Li, Tong-Fei, Li, Ke, Zhang, Quan, Wang, Chao, Yue, Yuan, Chen, Zhuo, Yuan, Shen-Jun, Liu, Xin, Wen, Yu, Han, Min, Komatsu, Naoki, Xu, Yong-Hong, Zhao, Li, Chen, Xiao
Biomaterials 2018 v.181 pp. 35-52
adults, antigens, brain neoplasms, coculture, dendritic cells, drugs, humans, immune response, immunogenicity, immunosuppression, immunotherapy, intravenous injection, lymphocytes, mice, models, prognosis
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest and most common type of primary brain tumor in adults with a grim prognosis despite multimodal treatments. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic modality for GBM, whose efficacy is nonetheless fundamentally undermined by GBM-induced immunosuppression. Inducing emission of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is a highly effective strategy to subvert tumor-associated immunosuppression. The present work was carried out to explore the idea of subverting the GBM immunosuppressive microenvironment through DC-mediated delivery of doxorubicin-polyglycerol-nanodiamond composites (Nano-DOX), a potent DAMPs inducer demonstrated by our previous study, and thereby eliciting enhanced DC-driven anti-GBM immune response. In the in-vitro work on human cell models, Nano-DOX-loaded DC were shown to be functionally viable and release cargo drug to co-cultured GBM cells (GC). Nano-DOX-treated GC displayed not only profuse DAMPs emission but also antigen release. Enhanced activation and acquisition and presentation of GC-derived antigen were then demonstrated in DC in co-culture with GC and Nano-DOX. Consistently, co-culture with GC and Nano-DOX also activated mouse bone marrow-derived DC (mDC) which in turn stimulated mouse spleen-derived lymphocytes which ultimately suppressed co-cultured GC. Next, athymic mice bearing orthotopic human GBM xenografts were intravenously injected with Nano-DOX-loaded mDC and, 48 h later, spleen-derived lymphocytes. The presence of Nano-DOX, DAMPs emission and enhanced infiltration and activation of mDC and lymphocytes were detected in the GBM xenografts. Taken together, our results demonstrate the efficacy of DC-mediated delivery of Nano-DOX to stimulate GC immunogenicity and elicit anti-cancer immune response in the GBM. By this work, we present a novel approach with great application potential to subverting the GBM immunosuppressive microenvironment and to anti-GBM immunotherapy. Investigation has also been conducted probing the mechanisms by which Nano-DOX stimulates GC immunogenicity, which is described in a follow-up paper.