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Preliminary test on the distribution, hydrolyzation and excretion of aluminum dialkyl phosphinate flame retardants in rats
- Niu, Yumin, Liang, Yong, Li, Lisha, Liu, Yuchen, Liu, Jiyan, Liu, Jingfu
- Environmental pollution 2018 v.242 pp. 1998-2004
- aluminum, blood serum, brain, environmental degradation, excretion, feces, flame retardants, hydrolysates, hydrolysis, kidneys, liver, rats, toxicity, urine, China
- Aluminum dialkyl phosphinates (ADPs) are a promising class of chemicals offering superior flame retardance. However, knowledge on their behavior in vivo is scarce. Hydrolysis has been suggested as one of the major routes of environmental degradation of ADPs. Herein, aluminum methylcyclohexyl phosphinic (AMHP), a kind of ADPs with industrial production in China, and its hydrolysate methyl cyclohexyl phosphinic acid (MHPA) were continuously exposed to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for 28 days in this study. The same ratio of MHPA in organs to serum and the same daily excretion of MHPA were observed for AMHP exposure group and MHPA exposure group, suggesting the hydrolysis of AMHP in vivo. The hydrolysis of AMHP to MHPA was further confirmed by in vitro simulated human gastric intestinal juice. Therefore, both AMHP and MHPA distributed in liver, kidney and even brain in the form of MHPA. More than 80% of AMHP and MHPA could be excreted by feces and urine. Feces are the main route of excretion of AMHP and MHPA. The denseness of the inflammatory cell in the hepatic portal area and biochemical indexes showed the obvious dose-effect relationship. However, the toxicity of AMHP and MHPA was quite low even with exposure level up to 100 mg/kg dw/day. The low cumulative ability and mild toxicity indicated AMHP as a promising substitute for brominated flame retardant.