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Educational level and family structure influence the dietary changes after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the E3N study

Mancini, Francesca Romana, Affret, Aurelie, Dow, Courtney, Balkau, Beverley, Bihan, Hélène, Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise, Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine, Bonnet, Fabrice, Fagherazzi, Guy
Nutrition research 2017 v.44 pp. 9-17
alcohols, carbohydrates, children, dietary recommendations, drug therapy, eating habits, educational status, energy, family structure, food frequency questionnaires, lifestyle, lipids, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, patients, regression analysis, socioeconomic factors, women
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has no cure but can be controlled by medication, diet, and lifestyle changes. It has been suggested that diabetes dietary self-management is more difficult for people with socioeconomic difficulties. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic factors impact the change of diet after T2D diagnosis. The 57 304 French women included in the present study answered food frequency questionnaires in 1993 and 2005 and questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, and were free from T2D in 1993. Between 1993 and 2005, 1249 women developed T2D. Linear regression models evaluated whether having T2D diagnosed had an impact on energy and nutrient intakes and whether socioeconomic factors were implicated. T2D was associated with a reduction of energy (β=-312.54 kJ/d, P<.001), carbohydrate (β=−9.29 g/d, P<.001), lipid (β=−2.01g/d, P<.001), and alcohol (β=−2.74g/d, P=.002) intakes, whereas there was no association with changes in protein or fiber intakes. The main socioeconomic factors that had an impact on dietary change were the level of education of T2D patients and whether or not they had a family (having a partner and/or children). The present study provides evidence that socioeconomic factors impact the way people with T2D change their dietary habits after diagnosis. Furthermore, the family plays a crucial role in dietary self-management, probably encouraging T2D patients to follow dietary recommendations.