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Fast Fourier infrared spectroscopy to characterize the biochemical composition in diatoms

Kumar, Vikas, Kashyap, Mrinal, Gautam, Shristy, Shukla, Prashant, Joshi, Khashti Ballabh, Vinayak, Vandana
Journal of biosciences 2018 v.43 no.4 pp. 717-729
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gomphonema, Nitzschia, absorption, amides, amines, antineoplastic agents, apoptosis, bioenergy industry, biofuels, biosynthesis, chemical composition, esters, isoprenoids, ketone bodies, microalgae, moieties, nutrients, pharmaceutical industry, photosynthesis, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, toxins, vibration
Diatoms are photosynthetic unicellular microalgae and are nature’s hidden source of several biosynthetic metabolites with their use in biofuel, food and drug industries. They mainly contain various lipids, sterols, isoprenoids and toxins with their use in apoptotic, fertility controlling and cancer drugs. Chemical studies on diatoms are limited due to various limitations such as variation of nutrients, contaminants and change in seasonal factors in the environment. To overcome these limitations, we obtained axenic cultures of 12 fresh-water diatom strains on the 22nd day of inoculation having a dry weight of 1 mg each and performed their Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study for the detection of functional groups responsible for their chemical moiety. The spectral mapping showed a varied level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amides, amines, ketone bodies and esters for their applications in various pharmacological, food and biofuel industries in the exponential phase of their growth in f/2 media. The FTIR study of the 12 diatom strains showed various similarities in the form of some common peak patterns ranging from 3000 to 3600 cm⁻¹ for νO–H absorption. The symmetric stretching vibration frequency of Diadesmis confervaceae (V2) type species showed different behaviour than others in the spectral region starting from 1600 to 1700 cm⁻¹. The absorption between 1500 and 1575 cm⁻¹ reflects the presence of the –N–H group. Infrared (IR) absorptions falling between 1600 and 1700 cm⁻¹ reflect the presence of amide’s νC₌O in all species. Placoneis elginensis (V8) type species showed an additional absorption band which is centred around 1735–1750 cm⁻¹ which perhaps reflects the presence of ester’s νC₌O. Diadesmis confervaceae (V2), Nitzschia palea (V4), Placoneis elginensis (V8), Nitzschia palea var. debilis (V6), Nitzschia inconspicua (V10), Gomphonema parvulum (V11) and Sellaphora (V12) showed distinct structural features with important key functionalities that can make them essential drug markers in the pharmaceutical industry.