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Identification of swinepox virus from natural outbreaks in pig population of Assam

Mech, Puja, Bora, Durlav P., Neher, Samsun, Barman, Nagendra N., Borah, Probodh, Tamuly, Shantanu, Dutta, Lakshya J., Das, Sailendra K.
Virusdisease 2018 v.29 no.3 pp. 395-399
Swinepox virus, Vaccinia virus, cell fusion, cell lines, cytopathogenicity, genes, phylogeny, swine, viruses, India
Outbreaks of swinepox [caused by a swinepox virus (SWPV)] in pigs were investigated in 3 districts of Assam, a north eastern state of India. Diagnosis of the disease was carried out employing both standard virological as well as molecular methods. Three representative isolates from different places were selected for inoculation into confluent monolayers of Porcine Kidney-15 (PK-15) cell line. The cytopathic effects were characterized by cell rounding, nuclear vacuolation, cell fusion, granulation of cells and finally detachment from third blind passage onwards. The three genes viz., SPV18–20 and P42 of SWPV was targeted for confirmation of the virus. Swinepox virus was successfully adapted to the PK-15 cell line from seventh passage onwards. The isolated viruses were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of P42 gene (extracellular envelope protein), a homologue of vaccinia virus F13L gene. In India, studies on swine pox are very limited. This is the first report on successful isolation of swinepox virus from north eastern region of India. Assam and the other north-eastern states of India being a hub for pig husbandry, isolation of swinepox virus will help in developing and formulating control strategies against the disease.