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Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract

Escher, Graziela Bragueto, Santos, Jânio Sousa, Rosso, Neiva Deliberali, Marques, Mariza Boscacci, Azevedo, Luciana, do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira, Daguer, Heitor, Molognoni, Luciano, Prado-Silva, Leonardo do, Sant'Ana, Anderson S., da Silva, Marcia Cristina, Granato, Daniel
Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.118 pp. 439-453
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Centaurea cyanus, anthocyanins, antihypertensive effect, antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds, cell death, cell lines, corolla, coumarin, cytotoxicity, ferulic acid, functional properties, inhibitory concentration 50, isoquercitrin, lipid peroxidation, p-coumaric acid, pH, plant extracts, reactive oxygen species, statistical analysis, temperature
This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavonoids, anthocyanins, and FRAP. Only the temperature influenced the total phenolic content, non-anthocyanin flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The statistical approach made it possible to obtain the optimised experimental extraction conditions to increase the level of bioactive compounds. Chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, isoquercitrin, and coumarin were identified as the major compounds in the optimised extract. The optimised extract presented anti-hemolytic and anti-hypertensive activity in vitro, in addition to showing stability and reversibility of anthocyanins and antioxidant activity with pH variation. The C. cyanus petals aqueous extract exhibited high IC50 and GI50 (>900 μg/mL) values for all cell lines, meaning low cytotoxicity. Based on the stress oxidative assay, the extract exhibited pro-oxidant action (10–100 μg/mL) but did not cause damage or cell death.