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Parameters affecting the exposure to furfuryl alcohol from coffee
- Albouchi, Abdullatif, Russ, Julia, Murkovic, Michael
- Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.118 pp. 473-479
- bioavailability, brewing, carcinogens, foods, furfuryl alcohol, gastric juice, humans, ingestion, storage conditions, temperature, toxicology
- Recently, furfuryl alcohol (FFA) was labelled a human potential carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Its alimentary exposure is mostly from coffee since in any other foods the concentrations are significantly lower. The various storage conditions of roasted coffee, the different brewing techniques applied and the bioaccessibility after ingestion are potential parameters that might alter the exposure to FFA from coffee. An 8 weeks stability study at varying temperatures showed that FFA is stable in the ground coffee matrix. Moreover, different brewing techniques extracted different amounts of FFA and affected its final concentration. The evaluation of the relative exposure to four furans (FFA, 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde, 2-furoic acid, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid) revealed that FFA amounts were at least 2-fold the amounts of other studied furans in the same brew. A 22-fold variation in the concentration of the four furans in brews prepared using different coffee grounds and brewing techniques could be observed. 90% of the four furans were extracted by the first 25-30% fraction of the filter brew. A significant decrease of FFA is observed after stressing with simulated gastric fluid. However, this decrease could not be reproduced when mimicking a regular coffee ingestion situation.