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Evaluation of flavourings potentially used in a heated tobacco product: Chemical analysis, in vitro mutagenicity, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and in vitro tumour promoting activity
- Crooks, Ian, Neilson, Louise, Scott, Ken, Reynolds, Lorna, Oke, Tobi, Forster, Mark, Meredith, Clive, McAdam, Kevin, Proctor, Chris
- Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.118 pp. 940-952
- Ames test, aerosols, cell transformation assay, chemical analysis, cigarettes, cytotoxicity, emissions, flavorings, genotoxicity, glycerol, micronucleus tests, mutagenicity, mutagens, neoplasms, nicotine
- We designed a novel tobacco-heating product (THP) that heats tobacco to release nicotine and aerosolised components, such as glycerol and tobacco volatiles from a tobacco rod (Neostik). Heating tobacco significantly reduces levels of combustion-derived toxicants in the aerosol compared to cigarette smoke. This study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of potential flavourings in the THP would add to the levels of toxicants in the emissions or alter in vitro responses. Levels of measured toxicants were similar in the flavoured and unflavoured Neostik emissions and significantly less than emissions from the reference cigarette, 3R4F. No mutagenicity was observed with the Neostiks in the Ames test or in the mouse lymphoma assay. There was evidence of a weak genotoxic response in the in vitro micronucleus test using V79 cells from both Neostiks and these responses were less than 3R4F. They did not show tumour-promoting potential in the Bhas 42 cell transformation assay and were not cytotoxic in the Neutral Red uptake assay. 3R4F elicited toxic responses in all assays at significantly lower concentrations. The addition of flavourings to the Neostik tested did not alter the chemical profile of THP emissions or change in vitro responses relative to the unflavoured Neostik.