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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of edible vegetable oils in Iran: A risk assessment study
- Yousefi, Mojtaba, Shemshadi, Ghazal, Khorshidian, Nasim, Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid, Fakhri, Yadolah, Hosseini, Hedayat, Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin
- Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.118 pp. 480-489
- European Union, Helianthus annuus, Monte Carlo method, adults, canola oil, children, corn, corn oil, fluorescence, frying, frying oil, health effects assessments, high performance liquid chromatography, ingestion, markets, neoplasms, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk, risk assessment, sunflower oil, toxicology, vegetable oil, Iran
- Totally forty samples (23 brands) of different types of edible oils including frying oil (n = 14), blended oil (n = 13), sunflower oil (n = 6), corn oil (n = 5) and canola oil (n = 2) from Iran's market were analyzed for PAHs content by a High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Also, the Health risk assessment in the adults and children consumers were estimated by the calculating margin of exposure (MOE) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. Approximately all of the samples contained different amounts of PAHs, while concentrations of BaP, PAH 4, PAH 8 and PAH 13 were reported as 0.90–11.33, 3.51–84.03, 7.41–117.12 and 129.28–19.54 μg/kg, respectively. Light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded to 65% of total PAHs while the remaining 35% belonged to heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on BaP content, 12 samples were above the standard limits (2 μg/kg) which set by the Standard Organization of Iran and the European Union, whereas 15 samples exceeded maximum limit 10 μg/kg set for PAH 4 established by EU. Percentile 95% of MOE in the adults due to ingestion of sunflower, corn, frying and blended oils were determined as 4.10E+5; 4.05E+5; , 2.17E+5, 2.33E+5, respectively and in the children due to ingestion of sunflower oil, corn oil, frying oil and blended oil were calculated as 5.38E+4, 4.49E+4, 2.86E+4, 3.37E+4. Regarding the percentile of 95% ILCR in the adults due to ingestion of sunflower oil, corn oil, frying oil and blended oil were reported as 4.5E-6, 4.17E-6l, 5.20E-6, 4.93E-6 and also this value in the children in the same rank order of products can be summarized as 3.43E-5, 3.94 E−5, 3.17E-5, 3.76E-5. The rank order of edible oils investigated based on MOE was sunflower oil > corn oil > blended oil > frying oil; and based on ILCR, frying oil > blended oil > sunflower oil > corn oil. The health risk assessment according to MCS method indicated that adults and children are not at considerable health risk; MOE ≥ 1E+4 and ILCR < 1E-4).