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A systematic review and meta-analysis of metal concentrations in canned tuna fish in Iran and human health risk assessment

Rahmani, Jamal, Fakhri, Yadolah, Shahsavani, Abbas, Bahmani, Zohreh, Urbina, Mauricio A., Chirumbolo, Salvatore, Keramati, Hassan, Moradi, Bigard, Bay, Abotaleb, Bjørklund, Geir
Food and chemical toxicology 2018 v.118 pp. 753-765
Food and Agriculture Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, World Health Organization, adults, aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, canned fish, children, chromium, copper, databases, fish, fish consumption, health effects assessments, human health, humans, iron, lead, mercury, meta-analysis, nickel, risk, seafoods, selenium, systematic review, tin, toxicology, zinc, Iran
Human consumption of fish protein, including canned tuna fish, is increasing steadily worldwide. However, there are some concerns about the potential exposure to elevated concentrations of metals in canned tuna fish. Several studies have been conducted in Iran regarding the concentration of metals in seafood, including copper (Cu), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), tin (Sn), and cadmium (Cd) in canned tuna fish. The main aim of this study was to gather data from existing papers and to perform a meta-analysis of the pooled concentrations of metals to evaluate their non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks in children and adults consumers. Search was conducted retrieving data from the international biomedical databases with highly public access and consultation, e.g., Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus, and national database (SID and Irandoc) between 1983 and November of 2017. Data from 23 articles and 1295 samples were assessed and extracted. The ranking order of metals based on mean concentrations (μg/g wet weight) were Fe (13.17) > Zn (9.31) > Se (2.23) > Al (1.8) > Cr (1.63) > Cu (1.52) > As (0.38) > Ni (0.33) > Pb (0.24) > Cd (0.14) > Hg (0.11) > Sn (0.1). Except for Cd and Se, concentrations of other metals in the canned tuna fish were lower than the limits recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Iran National Standards Organization (INSO). The minimum and maximum target hazard quotient (THQ) for adults were 5.55E-5 for Al and 2.23E-08 for Cr. For children, they were 7.23E-05 for Al and 2.91E-08 for Cr. THQ, and total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) were ≤1.0 for adult and children consumers. The Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) of As was 3.21E-5 in adults and 4.18E-5 in children. Adults and children that consume canned tuna fish in Iran are not at non-carcinogenic risk but have a carcinogenic risk due to As.