U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Modeling the Survival of Salmonella on Slice Cooked Ham as a Function of Apple Skin Polyphenols, Acetic Acid, Oregano Essential Oil and Carvacrol

Qiuqin Zhang, S. Mukhopadhyay, C. A. Hwang, Xinglian Xu, V. K. Juneja
Journal of food processing and preservation 2015 pp. -
Salmonella, acetic acid, antibacterial properties, apples, carvacrol, cooked foods, essential oils, experimental design, food industry, guidelines, ham, models, oregano, polyphenols, population density, ready-to-eat foods, response surface methodology, survival rate
Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the combined effect of apple skin polyphenols (ASP), acetic acid (AA), oregano essential oil (O) and carvacrol (C) on the inactivation of Salmonella on sliced cooked ham. A full factorial experimental design was employed with control variables of ASP (0-10%), AA (0-4%), O (0-0.6%) and C (0-0.8%). Acetic acid, O and C were more effective in reducing Salmonella population densities on sliced cooked ham as compared to ASP; the reductions ranged from 1.2 and 4.4 log cfu/cm2 for 1 and 4% AA, respectively, to virtually no reduction for 5 and 10% ASP. The interaction between ASP and AA, ASP and C, AA and C also had a significant influence on Salmonella reduction on sliced cooked ham. The highest reduction (6.9 log cfu/cm2) was achieved with the use of AA (4%) and C (0.8%) and the least effective was the use of a combination of ASP (10%) and O (0.6%) when the reduction was minimal, i.e., 1.7 log cfu/cm2. A second-order response surface model developed to predict Salmonella survival was found to be significant (p less than 0.0001) with regression coefficients of 0.858 and an insignificant lack of fit (p=0.4266). Results of this study will assist food processors and regulators in developing guidelines applicable to reducing Salmonella on ready-to-eat foods by combined use of ASP, AA, O and C.