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Arsenic and phosphate rock impacted the abundance and diversity of bacterial arsenic oxidase and reductase genes in rhizosphere of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata

Han, Yong-He, Fu, Jing-Wei, Xiang, Ping, Cao, Yue, Rathinasabapathi, Bala, Chen, Yanshan, Ma, Lena Q.
Journal of hazardous materials 2017 v.321 pp. 146-153
Pteris vittata, arsenates, arsenic, arsenites, bacteria, bacterial communities, biodiversity, calcium, gamma-Proteobacteria, genes, genetic variation, phytoremediation, polluted soils, restriction fragment length polymorphism, rhizosphere, rock phosphate, soil pH
Microbially-mediated arsenic (As) transformation in soils affects As speciation and plant uptake. However, little is known about the impacts of As on bacterial communities and their functional genes in the rhizosphere of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. In this study, arsenite (AsIII) oxidase genes (aroA-like) and arsenate (AsV) reductase genes (arsC) were amplified from three soils, which were amended with 50mgkg⁻¹ As and/or 1.5% phosphate rock (PR) and grew P. vittata for 90 d. The aroA-like genes in the rhizosphere were 50 times more abundant than arsC genes, consistent with the dominance of AsV in soils. According to functional gene alignment, most bacteria belonged to α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Moreover, aroA-like genes showed a higher biodiversity than arsC genes based on clone library analysis and could be grouped into nine clusters based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Besides, AsV amendment elevated aroA-like gene diversity, but decreased arsC gene diversity. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH, available Ca and P, and AsV concentration were key factors driving diverse compositions in aroA-like gene community. This work identified new opportunities to screen for As-oxidizing and/or -reducing bacteria to aid phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.