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Chromium immobilization in soil using quaternary ammonium cations modified montmorillonite: Characterization and mechanism
- Yang, Jie, Yu, Kai, Liu, Cun
- Journal of hazardous materials 2017 v.321 pp. 73-80
- adsorption, ammonium, chromium, heavy metals, immobilization in soil, leaching, models, moieties, montmorillonite, pH, polluted soils, remediation, risk, surface area, surfactants, tetramethylammonium compounds, toxicity
- The potential risk of heavy metal in soil can be reduced by stabilization techniques. Stabilizing amendments, montmorillonites modified with tetramethylammonium (TMA) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) at different loadings were prepared, characterized and assayed for remediation of hexavalent chromium contaminated soil. Characterization results demonstrated that TMA modification resulted in increased surface area and pore volume, whereas HDTMA modification resulted in decreased surface area and pore volume. For HDTMA modified montmorillonites (H-Monts), the arrangement model of surfactant molecules and the structural characteristics strongly depended on the surfactant loading density. Less pronounced packing density dependence was observed for TMA modified montmorillonites (T-Monts). Modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was utilized to evaluate the chromium immobilizing capacity of the prepared organo-montmorillonites, and the results revealed that both T-Monts and H-Monts can be reasonably effective in chromium stabilization under different leaching condition. The comparison of chromium leaching behavior manifested by T-Monts and H-Monts suggested that mechanisms for chromium immobilization by organo-montmorillonites amendment proceeded via two adsorption approaches. Each approach involves different functional groups, depending on the leaching pH and surfactant loading concentration. In addition, the effect of HDTMA loading concentration, amendment dosage, initial chromium concentration and incubation time on the immobilizing efficiency of H-Monts was investigated.