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Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

Sun, Fusheng, Polizzotto, Matthew L., Guan, Dongxing, Wu, Jun, Shen, Qirong, Ran, Wei, Wang, Boren, Yu, Guanghui
Journal of hazardous materials 2017 v.326 pp. 18-25
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, binding sites, bioavailability, cadmium, fertilizer application, fluorescence, heavy metals, mineral fertilizers, minerals, moieties, organic fertilizers, prediction, soil, soil colloids, wheat
Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p<0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.