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Oriented Attachment and Nanorod Formation in Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 on Graphene Nanoplatelets
- Grillo, Fabio, La Zara, Damiano, Mulder, Paul, Kreutzer, Michiel T., Ruud van Ommen, J.
- Journal of physical chemistry 2018 v.122 no.34 pp. 19981-19991
- nanocomposites, nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, physical chemistry, titanium dioxide, transmission electron microscopy
- Understanding the spontaneous organization of atoms on well-defined surfaces promises to enable control over the shape and size of supported nanostructures. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) boasts atomic-scale control in the synthesis of thin films and nanoparticles. Yet, the possibility to control the shape of ALD-grown nanostructures remains mostly unexplored. Here, we report on the bottom-up formation of both linear and V-shaped anatase TiO₂ nanorods (NRs) on graphene nanoplatelets during TiCl₄/H₂O ALD carried out at 300 °C. NRs as large as 200 nm form after only five ALD cycles, indicating that diffusional processes rather than layer-by-layer growth are behind the NR formation. In particular, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the TiO₂ NRs and graphene nanoplatelets are in rotational alignment as a result of lattice matching. Crucially, we also show that individual nanocrystals can undergo in-plane oriented attachment.