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Different strategies for producing naturally soluble form of common cytokine receptor γ chain
- Jeong, Jipseol, Kim, Woo H., Fernandez, Cherry P., Kim, Suk, Kim, Yong-Hwan, Jang, Hyung-Kwan, Lillehoj, Hyun S., Woo, Hee-Jong, Min, Wongi
- Developmental and comparative immunology 2015 v.48 no.1 pp. 13
- alternative splicing, antigens, chickens, cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cytokine receptors, developmental stages, ducks, gene expression, genes, homeostasis, humans, immunosuppression (physiological), introns, lymph, messenger RNA, mice, probability, proteolysis, serine
- The common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) plays an essential role in regulating lymphoid homeostasis. In fact, alteration of this gene causes severe immunodeficiency in humans and animals. Although soluble γc (sγc) was identified in the late 1990s, much remains unknown about its production. This study describes various mechanisms underlying the generation of sγc isoforms in different species. Our data demonstrate that mouse γc and the avian ortholog γc-a did not generate sγc. Moreover, two mouse isoforms, CRA-a and mγc-b, encoded by transcripts lacking a transmembrane region by alternative splicing, did not yield sγc. However, in ducks, sγc was produced from a γc-b transcript lacking a transmembrane region by alternative splicing. In chickens, sγc was produced in normal cells and cell lines by proteolytic shedding of the γc-b isoform containing intron 5, which displayed a relatively high probability of proteolytic cleavage of the ectodomain. This shedding was suppressed by leupeptin, serine and cysteine protease inhibitor. Compared to the chicken ortholog γc-a, expression of γc-b mRNA was differentially regulated according to tissue type, developmental stage, and antigen stimulation. These data demonstrate several mechanisms for producing sγc and suggest a potential role for sγc in avian lymphoid homeostatic responses to environmental antigens.